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History of Iran > Before Aryan
2320 - 1032 B.C.
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Before Mād (Medes) There were 5 Dynasties which ruled a part or all of Iran as well as other near contries like Iraq, Syria, etc.
Important events
  • Prophet Ebrāhīm (Ibrahim) (19th - 17th century B.C.)
  • Prophet Mūsā (Moses) (13th - 12th century B.C.)
  • Prophet Zartosht (Zoroaster) (1750 B.C.)
  • Technique for making steel (1500 - 1000 B.C.)
  • Trojan Wars (1193-1184 B.C.)
  • First Dynasty: (from ~2320 B.C. 2068 B.C.)
    It was ruled by Bābel (Babylians).
    The bigest king of this dynasty is the sixth king in the dynasty Hamūrābī (ruled from 2123 B.C. - 2080 B.C.)
    His laws (one of the oldest constitusion) have been carved on a stone, being kept at Louver museum in Paris, France.
    On 2093 B.C. Hamūrābī, concured Īlām (Elemite) and send Īlām's king out of their capitol Lārsā.
    At this time Īlām had it's own dynasy called Anzāly dynasty.
    Second dynasty: (2067 B.C. - 1710 B.C.)
    Hīt (Hittities) took the power from Bābel (Babylians).
    First king were Īlūmāīlū. They were located in todays Turkey.
    Third dynasty: (1760 B.C. - 1185 B.C.)
    Kāsī that lived on west of Iran ( today's Iraq and Khūzestān) defeated second dynasty and started third dynasty. Bābel (Babylian) have been taken over by Ashūr (Asyrian) twice (1275 B.C. and 1100 B.C.) At this time Bābel (Babylians) and Egypt made a good relationship.
    Fourth dynasty (1184 B.C. - 1053 B.C.)
    From a tribe called Pāsh.
    Fifth dynasty (1052 B.C. - 1032 B.C.)
    From a tribe called Bāzī.
    Gūtī (Guti) :2230-2110 B.C.
    There is very little known about the people called the Guti ..... Mountain people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily around Hamadan in the central Zagros Range. The Guti were a strong political force throughout the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC especially about 2230 when they swept down into Babylonia (southern Mesopotamia), overthrowing the Akkadian empire (ruled at that time either by Naram-Sin or by his son Shar-Kali Sharri) and traditionally took over control of most of the region. The Gutian rulers, in power a little more than a century (until circa 2110 BC), do not appear to have held all of Babylonia during this whole period; there is evidence of independent rulers in various parts of Babylonia such as Gudea at Lagash. Very little is known about the Gutian domination and the period appears to have been one of general political turmoil and cultural stagnation.
    The dynasty of Guti traditionally ended about 2110 when Utu-Khegal of Uruk defeated Tirigan, the last king of the Gutian dynasty. Although the Guti from their home in the Zagros continued to menace the subsequent dynasties and kingdoms they were never again able to take control of southern Mesopotamia
    Lūllūbī (Lullubi)
    Ancient group of tribes that inhabited the Sherizor plain in the Zāgros Mountains of western Iran. A warlike people, they were especially active during the reign of the Akkadian King Naram-Sin (reigned circa 2254 - 2218 BC) and at the end of the dynasty of Akkad (2334 - 2154 BC). The Lullubi were apparently subjugated by Naram-Sin, who commemorated his triumph on a masterpiece of Mesopotamian sculpture, the Naram-Sin stele; the tribes, however, soon regained their independence and resumed harassment of southern Mesopotamia, helping to bring an end to the Akkadian empire. Later overshadowed by their more powerful neighbours, the Lullubi remained a source of unrest almost to the end of Mesopotamian history ......
    Stele of victory of Naram-Sin, King of Agade (2291 - 2255 BC) found at Susa, whither it had been brought by the Elamite King Shutruk-Nakhkhunte as part of the 'booty of Sippar'. This celebrates a victory over the Lullubi. In mountainous and wooded country the Akkadian monarch is depicted at the head of his troops protected by the symbols of his deities. Wearing a horned headdress to signify his own divinity and carrying a bow, he tramples the enemy beneath his feet. Bow and arrow appear to be the principal weapons, apart from the spear and the axe (note the absence of any type of shield)
    Kāssī (Kassites) (1530 - 1170)
    History has been unkind to the Kassites, a people who come onto the stage of history in the one of the most chaotic periods in the Middle East. In the middle of the second millenium BC Indo-European peoples began vast and chaotic migrations out of Europe towards Persia and India; this migration was powered by a stunning new technology: the military use of horses and chariots. These invasions displaced many peoples who began to migrate in many directions, and some headed towards Mesopotamia and Palestine. These were Asian people who had adopted Indo-European authority and military structures and many of them were invaders who set up miniature kingdoms dotting the landscape of the Middle East and Asia Minor. The Hittites were the most successful of these new invaders. But they didn't control the center of Mesopotamia, the city of Babylon for very long before another Indo-European people, the Kassites, roared in and dominated a large part of Mesopotamia. The Hittite empire continued for several hundred years, but the Kassites would dominate the center of Mesopotamia both militarily and commercially ....
    After storming into Babylon, they renamed the city Karanduniash and made their capital in a new city that they built from scratch, Dur Kurigalzu. In this respect we can see in the dim dust of history an attempt to do something new culturally in Mesopotamia. But the Kassites are gone within a blink of an eye, as wave after wave of migrations put pressure on their fragile hold on power. By 1200 BC all the great Indo-European kingdoms, that great human experiment in transforming Mesopotamia into an Indo-European culture, have been weakened by the incessant troubles of war and invasion, and the Assyrians, a Semitic people angered by Indo-European domination, would return the area to Semitic control. Under the Assyrian King Ashur-Dan, the last Kassite king was driven from the Babylonian throne in the twelfth century BC .....
    History, of course, is written by the winners. We know very little about the Kassites except that their conquerors felt that they were barbarians and savages.

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